DEFINITIONS
 
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ALL
 
(M)
(Malaysia)

Abbreviation for 'Malaysia'

Source: N/A
 
 
(S)
(Singapore)

Abbreviation for 'Singapore'

Source: N/A
 
 
12-MONTHS EARNINGS YIELD
Trailing 12-Month Earnings Yield %

(Sum of EPS from latest 12 Months/Closing Price) * 100

Sum of EPS is Total Net Profit from the past 12 Months divided by latest FYE issued NOSH

Source: Latest 12 Months of Unaudited Profit & Loss Accounts
 
 
12-MONTHS P/E
Trailing 12 Months Price-over-Earnings

Closing Price / Sum of EPS from the past 12-Months

Sum of EPS is Total Net Profit from the past 12 Months divided by latest issued NOSH

Please note that this figure is normalised for Bonus Issues / Splits / Rights / Private Placements etc.

Source: Unaudited Quarterly Results
 
 
2B
2nd Board

Refers to companies listed on Bursa Malaysia with a minimum issued and paid-up share capital of at least RM40million.

Source: 
 
 
52W-HI
52 Week Closing Price High

52 Week Closing Price High

Source: N/A
 
 
52W-LO
52 Week Closing Price Low

52 Week Closing Price Low

Source: N/A
 
 
72
Rule of 72

A rule stating that in order to find the number of years required to double your money at a given interest rate, you divide the compound return into 72. The result is the approximate number of years that it will take for your investment to double.

For example, if you want to know how long it will take to double your money at 12% interest, divide 12 into 72 and you get six years.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Acct Recv
Accounts Receivable

If a company has receivables, this means it has made a sale but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit.

Also known as Debtors or Receivables

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
ACE
ACE MARKET

ACE MARKET - revamp of MESDAQ Market as of 3 August 2009 - This new framework for listings and equity fund-raisings is aimed at allowing efficient access to capital and investments, as well as making Bursa Malaysia a more attractive platform for Malaysian and foreign companies.

Source: www.bursamalaysia.com
 
 
ACID TEST
Acid Test Ratio

Current Assets - Inventory / Current Liabilities

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
AP
Accounts Payables

An accounting entry that represents an entity's obligation to pay off a short-term debt to its creditors. The accounts payable entry is found on a balance sheet under the heading current liabilities.

Accounts Payables (AP) is also known as Creditors or as 'payables'

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
AR
Accounts Receivable

If a company has receivables, this means it has made a sale but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit.

Also known as Debtors or Receivables

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
AVG
Average

Abbreviation for 'average'

Source: N/A
 
 
B
Bonus Issue

An offer of free additional shares to existing shareholders. A company may decide to distribute further shares as an alternative to increasing the dividend payout.

New shares are issued to shareholders in proportion to their holdings. For example, the company may give one bonus share for every five shares held.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
BALANCE FLOAT
Balance Float

[ (NOSH - Total Shares held by Top30 Shareholders) / NOSH ] * 100

Source: Latest Company Annual Report
 
 
Balance Sheet Equation

Assets - Liabilities = Owners' Equity

See Owners' Equity (OE)

Source: N/A
 
 
Basic EPS
Basic Earnings Per Share

EPS computation based on the weighted average nosh:

Net Profit / Weighted Average NOSH

Source: P & L Statement
 
 
BD WTG
Board Weightage

Weightage of the company within the board e.g. how many % it makes up of the main board

Source: N/A
 
 
BD-SECT WTG
Board Sector Weightage

Weightage in % of the company within Bursa's 12 main sectors

Source: N/A
 
 
Bonds

Bonds - A form of debt security issued by large corporations and governments to raise funds from investors to finance projects or business ventures. The bond issuer will pay the investor or bondholder a fixed rate of interest over the life of the bond in exchange for the use of the money. The principal amount of the loan is repaid at maturity.

Source: N/A
 
 
BPS
Borrowings per share

(Total Current Liabilities + Total Long Term Liabilities) / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
BV
Book Value

Book Value (BV) is also known as Owners' Equity, Shareholders' Equity, Stockholders' Equity, Total Shareholders' Funds or Net Worth.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
C
Closing Price

Abbreviation of 'closing price'

See Closing Price (CLS)

Source: N/A
 
 
C%VR
52W Price Volatility

This figure represents the stock price along its 52Week High & 52W Low volatility range.
Stocks trading at a C%VR of between 0-10% represents stocks trading at their 52Week Highs
Stocks trading at C%VR of 90-100 represents stocks trading at their 52Week Lows

Source: 52Week Daily Closing Prices
 
 
CAGR
Compound Annual Growth Rate

The year-over-year growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time. The compound annual growth rate is calculated by taking the nth root of the total percentage growth rate, where n is the number of years in the period being considered.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Cash & Sec ps
Cash & Securities Per Share

Cash & Securities / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
CASH / REV DAYS
CASH / REVENUE DAYS

(CASH / REVENUE) X 365

Source: Company Annual Report
 
 
CASH / TC DAYS
CASH / TOTAL COST DAYS

(CASH / (REVENUE - NET PROFIT)) X 365

Source: Company Annual Report
 
 
Cash Flow
Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are classified into:

Operational cash flows: Cash received or expended as a result of the company's internal business activities. It includes cash earnings plus changes to working capital. Over the medium term this must be net positive if the company is to remain solvent.

Investment cash flows: Cash received from the sale of long-life assets, or spent on capital expenditure (investments, acquisitions and long-life assets).

Financing cash flows: Cash received from the issue of debt and equity, or paid out as dividends, share repurchases or debt repayments

Source: C101 lecture notes
 
 
CASH RATIO
Cash Ratio

Cash, Bank & Securities / Current Liabilities

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
Cash Sec/Rev ps
Cash & Securities / Revenue Per Share

Cash & Securities per share / Revenue per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Statements
 
 
CASH/NAV%
Cash / Net Asset Value %

(Cash / Total Shareholders Funds) x 100

Source: Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
CASH/R DAYS
Cash / Revenue in Days

(Cash / Revenue) x 365

Source: Audited Balance Sheet & Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
CASH/TL%
Cash / Total Liabilities %

(Cash / Total Liabilities) x 100

Source: Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
CE
Chief Executive

Chief Exeuctive Officer

Source: Latest Audited Annual Report
 
 
CHG
Change

Abbreviation for 'change'

Source: N/A
 
 
CHG PTS
Change Points

Abbreviation for 'change points'

Source: N/A
 
 
CI
Composite Index

Kuala Lumpur Composite Index an Index started in 1986, consisting of 30 main board companies. The Index is currently owned and maintained by Bursa Malaysia Bhd

Source: N/A
 
 
CI WTG
Composite Index Weightage

Closing Stock Price x NOSH / Total Market Value of CI

Source: N/A
 
 
CLS
Closing Price

The final price at which a security is traded on a given trading day. The closing price represents the most up-to-date valuation of a security until trading commences again on the next trading day.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Company Options

Company Options - securities issued by a company, which bind it to issue shares to the option-holder at a certain price (and at a certain time) if the holder chooses to take up those shares.

See ESOS and Warrants

Source: www.premiumdata.net
 
 
CPS
Cash Per Share

Cash & Securities / NOSH

See Cash & Sec ps or Cash & Securities Per Share

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
CREDIT DAYS OUTSTANDING
Credit Days Outstanding

(Total Trade Debtors / Total Sales) x 365

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
Creditors

See Accounts Payables (AP)

Source: N/A
 
 
CU Investors Yield(%)
Current Investors Yield(%)

(Free Cash Flow Per Share / Latest Closing Price) X 100 %

Source: Latest Annual Report
 
 
CU P/E or CU PE
Current P/E

Current Close Price / ( Audited FYE Earning (Net Profit)/Latest NOSH)

Source: Latest Annual Report
 
 
CULS
Convertible Unsecured Loan Stock

CULS are convertible unsecured loan stocks. A loan stock is a security issued by a company for a loan made to it by investors. CULS combine certain advantages of bonds (which are loans securities) with the option of converting into ordinary shares. The bond characteristics of CULS are they pay investors a fixed rate of interest to the holder at specific dates, usually bi-annually, as spelt out in the CULS agreeement and the undertaking to repay the principal sum on its maturity in the case of the redeemable loan stocks. The equity part of CULS materialises when they are converted into shares and the investor can enjoy possibilities of capital appreciation. Upon conversion into shares, the Number of Shares Outstanding (NOSH) is increased.

See RCULS and ICULS

Source: Institute of Bankers Malaysia
 
 
CURRENT
Current Ratio

Current Assets / Current Liabilities

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
CY
Calendar Year

Abbreviation for 'calendar year'

Source: N/A
 
 
CY P/E or CY PE
Calendar Year P/E

Calendar Year End Price / Financial Year End Earnings (Audited)

Source: Annual Report
 
 
CY Vol ('000)
Cumulative Calendar Year Volume represented in thousands

Cumulative Volume from 1st January till 31st December

Source: Daily Volume
 
 
Debentures

Debentures - A form of unsecured bond. Debentures bear a fixed rate of interest and the capital sum is normally repayable within a fixed term.

Source: N/A
 
 
DEBT RATIO
Debt Ratio

Total Liabilities / Total Assets

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
Debtors

See Accounts Receivables (AR)

Source: N/A
 
 
DIV PAYOUT%
Dividend Payout %

(Dividend per share / Net Profit per share) * 100

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
DIVIDEND TIMES COVER
Dividend Times Cover

Net Profit / Dividend Payout

Source: Audited Profit & Loss Accounts
 
 
DPS
Dividends per share

Dividends / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
Due-D Basic
Due Diligence Basic Version

Covers 10 indicators over 10 years, namely Financial Sustainability: (1) Net Profit, (2) Dividends, (3) Operating Cash Flow; Performance Changes: (4) Revenue Change, (5) Profit Change, (6) Operating Cash Flow Change; Cash Position Changes: (7) Cash/Net Worth %, (8) Cash/Total Cost in Days, (9) Cash/Revenue in Days, (10) Cash/Total Liabilities %.

Source: Audited Balance Sheet, Profit & Loss and Cash Flow Statements over the last 10 years
 
 
DY
Dividend Yield(%)

(Last Financial Dividend per share / Closing Price) x 100

The dividend yield of a stock shows the gross return which can be obtained if a stock is purchased at the closing price shown. It is important to note that dividends declared are sometimes paid very late - as much as six months after the declaration. This may render exact computations of return a little difficult.

Dividend yield is an important indicator for investors who invest for regular income. Dividends of Malaysian companies are generally low. The market average for the KLCI-100 is only one third of the ongoing time deposit rates for one year.

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
EARNINGS YIELD
Earnings-Over-Price

(Latest Audited EPS / Closing Price) * 100

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
EBIT
Earnings Before Interest & Taxes

An indicator of a company's profitability, calculated as revenue minus expenses, excluding tax and interest. EBIT is also referred to as "operating earnings", "operating profit" and "operating income", as you can re-arrange the formula to be calculated as follows:

EBIT = Revenue - Operating Expenses

Also known as Profit Before Interest & Taxes (PBIT), and equals Net Income with interest and taxes added back to it.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
EOY
End-of-year

Abbreviation for 'end of year'

Source: N/A
 
 
EPS
Earnings per share

Net Profit / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
ESOS
Employee Share Option Scheme

A stock option granted to specified employees of a company. ESOS carry the right, but not the obligation, to buy a certain amount of shares in the company at a predetermined price. An employee stock option is slightly different from a regular exchange-traded option because it is not generally traded on an exchange, and there is no put component. Furthermore, employees typically must wait a specified vesting period before being allowed to exercise the option.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
ET
EquitiesTracker

Abbreviation of 'EquitiesTracker'

Also known as EQT

Source: N/A
 
 
ETF
Exchange Traded Fund

Exchange Traded Fund Units - hybrid securities that trade on the SGX equities market. An ETF is a managed index fund whose units trade like ordinary shares. ETFs offer direct and convenient exposure to the performance of an index like the Straits Times Index.

Source: N/A
 
 
EY
Earnings Yield

See Earnings Yield

Source: N/A
 
 
FBMKLCI
FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index

Main Bursa Index - renamed FBMKLCI July 2009

Source: Bursa Malaysia
 
 
FBMSHA
FTSE Bursa Malaysia Shariah

Shariah Compliant FTSE Bursa Malaysia Index

Source: Bursa Malaysia
 
 
FCF
Free Cash Flow

Free Cash Flow = Cashflow from Operating Activities + Cashflow from Investing Activities

Source: Latest Company Audited Cashflow Statement
 
 
FD
Financial Director

Financial Director

Source: Latest Audited Annual Report
 
 
Financing Cash Flow
Cash Flow from Financing Activities

Financing Cash Flow: Cash received from the issue of debt and equity, or paid out as dividends, share repurchases or debt repayments.

Financing activities include the inflow of cash from investors such as banks and shareholders, as well as the outflow of cash to shareholders as dividends as the company generates income. Examples:
(+) Sale of the company's stock
(+) Borrowings - Proceeds from issuing short-term or long-term debt
(-) Payments of dividends
(-) Payments for repurchase of company shares
(-) Repayment of debt principal, including capital leases

Source: C101 lecture notes
 
 
FQA
Franchise Quality Analysis

Franchise Quality Analysis (FQA) is a proprietary method of scoring a company's business model or franchise over a period of time based on a number of indicators.

Source: N/A
 
 
FTSE
Financial Times and the London Stock Exchange

FTSE is an independent company jointly owned by The Financial Times and the London Stock Exchange. FTSE indices are used extensively by a range of investors such as consultants, asset owners, fund managers, investment banks, stock exchanges and brokers. The indices are used for purposes of investment analysis, performance measurement, asset allocation, portfolio hedging and creation of index tracking funds.

Source: www.ftse.com
 
 
FY
Financial Year End

Represents the specific date of a 12 month period of business trading. A company may choose any month during the year and may change their Year ending.

Source: Latest Annual Report
 
 
FY P/E
Financial Year P/E

Financial Year End Close / Audited Financial Year Earnings per share (EPS)

Source: Annual Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
FYE
Financial Year End

Represents the specific date of a 12 month period of business trading. A company may choose any month during the year and may change their Year ending.

Source: Latest Annual Report
 
 
FYE CLS
Financial Year End Close Price

The Closing Price of the company as at their financial year end.

Source: N/A
 
 
GDR
Global Depository Receipt

Global Depository Receipts (GDRs) are certificates representing an issuer's underlying shares. The listing of GDRs on SGX is one of the manners through which an international company which is already listed on its home exchange can list on SGX and raise funds.

Source: www.sgx.com
 
 
GROSS MARGIN
Gross Margin per share

Gross Margin / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
HILO VOLA%
High-Low Volatility in Percentage

HILO VOLA% is calculated as follows:

(Year's High Price - Year's Low Price)/Year's High Price x 100

Source: N/A
 
 
ICULS
Irredeemable Convertible Unsecured Loan Stock

A type of security that can be used to purchase underlying common shares. It is similar to a warrant except that it is subject to the conversion ratio. In essence, an ICULS provides the benefits of a bond until it is converted to an equity. If the loan stocks are irredeemable, the holder must convert the ICULS into shares on maturity (normally after four or five years) at a predetermined conversion ratio and conversion price. Upon conversion into shares, the Number of Shares Outstanding (NOSH) is increased.

See CULS and RCULS

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
IEC
Independent Executive Chairman

Independent Executive Chairman

Source: Latest Audited Annual Report
 
 
IED
Independent Executive Director

Independent Executive Director

Source: Latest Audited Annual Report
 
 
In Specie
Dividend in specie or Distribution in specie

A phrase describing the distribution of an asset in its present form, rather than selling it and distributing the cash. In specie distribution is made when cash is not readily available, or allocating the physical asset is the better alternative.

An example of an in specie distribution is a stock dividend, which can be distributed to investors when cash is in short supply. It is common to see an in specie distribution made in the form of fractional shares such as 0.5 shares for each share held.

The phrase "in specie" is Latin for "in its actual form".

Often used in conjunction with "distribution in specie" or "dividend in specie"


Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
INEC
Independent Non-Executive Chairman

Independent Non-Executive Chairman

Source: Latest Audited Annual Report
 
 
INT COVER
Interest Cover

Earnings before Interest / Interest

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
Intangible Asset
Intangible Asset

An asset that is not physical in nature. Corporate intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies), goodwill and brand recognition are all common intangible assets in today's marketplace.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
INTEREST TIMES COVER
Interest Times Cover

Net Profit / Interest (Expense) or Income

Source: Latest Audited Profit & Loss
 
 
Investing Cash Flow
Cash Flow from Investing Activities

Investing Cash Flows:
Cash received from the sale of long-life assets, or spent on capital expenditure (investments, acquisitions and long-life assets).
Examples of Investing Activities are:
(-) Purchase of an asset (assets can be land, building, equipment, marketable securities, etc.)
(+) Sale of an asset
(+) Dividends received

Source: C101 lecture notes
 
 
KLCI
Kuala Lumpur Composite Index

The Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI) is a capitalization-weighted stock market index. Introduced in 1986, it is now known as the FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI. The enhancements to adopt FTSE Bursa Malaysia Index methodology were implemented on Monday, 6 July 2009. The FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI comprises the largest 30 companies listed on the Malaysian Main Market by full market capitalisation that meet the eligibility requirements of the FTSE Bursa Malaysia Index Ground Rules. The two main eligibility requirements stated in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia Index Ground Rules are the free float and liquidity requirements. It contains 30 companies from the Main Market with approximately 900 to 1000 listed companies. The index has a base value of 100 as of January 2, 1977.

Source: www.wikipedia.org
 
 
LEVERAGE
Leverage Ratio

Total Liabilities / Total Shareholders Funds

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
LEVERAGE
Leverage

Total Liabilities / Total Shareholders Funds

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
MA
Moving Average

An indicator frequently used in technical analysis showing the average value of a security's price over a set period.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
MACD
Moving Average Convergence Divergence

A trend-following momentum indicator that shows the relationship between two moving averages of prices.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
MAIN
MAIN MARKET

MAIN MARKET - merging of Main Board (MB) and Second Board (2B) as of 3 August 2009

Source: www.bursamalaysia.com
 
 
MARKET CAPITALISATION
Market Capitalisation

Closing Price x NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
MB
Main Board

Refers to companies listed on Bursa Malaysia with a minimum issued and paid-up share capital of at least RM60million.

Source: N/A
 
 
MCR
Market Capitalisation Ratio

Closing Price / Net Worth per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
MFR
Manufacturer

Abbreviation for 'manufacturer'

Source: N/A
 
 
MI
Minority Interest

A significant but non-controlling ownership of less than 50% of a company's voting shares by either an investor or another company.

A non-current liability that can be found on a parent company's balance sheet that represents the proportion of its subsidiaries owned by minority shareholders.

For example, if ABC Corp. owns 90% of XYZ inc, which is a $100 million company, on ABC Corp.'s balance sheet, there would be a $10 million liability in minority interest account to represent the 10% of XYZ Inc. that ABC Corp does not own.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
MIV
Market Intrinsic Value

Closing Price / Total Asset per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
MQ
Mesdaq

Refers to companies listed on Bursa Malaysia with a minimum issued and a minimum paid-up share capital of RM2million

Source: N/A
 
 
NAV
Net Asset Value

Net Asset Value - NAV - A mutual fund's price per share or exchange-traded fund's (ETF) per-share value. In both cases, the per-share dollar amount of the fund is calculated by dividing the total value of all the securities in its portfolio, less any liabilities, by the number of fund shares outstanding.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
NED
Non-Executive Director

Non-Executive Director

Source: Latest Audited Annual Report
 
 
NET CURRENT ASSETS
Net Current Assets

Net Current Assets = Total Current Assets - Total Current Liabilities

Source: Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
NFCAPS
Net Free Current Assets Per Share

(Current Assets - Total Liability) / No of Shares

Source: Latest Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
NFCPS
Net Free Cash Per Share

Cash - Total Liabilities / No of Shares

Source: N/A
 
 
NOSH
Number Of Shares Outstanding

Paid-Up Capital / Par Value

This figure is used to calculate all per share indices. NOSH Figures are as at the latest Quarterly Result Report.

See Ordinary Shares

Source: Latest Quarterly Statements
 
 
NTAPS
Net Tangible Asset per share

(Total Assets - Total Liabilities - Intangible Assets - Minority Interest) / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
NWPS
Net Worth per share

(Total Shareholder Funds) / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
OCF RATIO
Operating Cash Flow Ratio

Operating Cashflow / Current Liability

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet & Statement of Cash Flows
 
 
OCF TA
Operating Cash Flow / Total Assets

Operating Cash Flow / Total Assets

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
OCPS
Operating Cash Flow per share

Total Operating Cash Flow / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Cash Flow Statement
 
 
OE
Owners' Equity

The portion of the balance sheet equation that represents the capital received from investors in exchange for stock (paid-up capital) and retained earnings. Owners' equity represents the equity stake currently held on the books by a firm's equity investors. It is calculated as a firm's total assets minus its total liabilities:

Total Assets - Total Liabilities = Owners' Equity

Also known as Shareholders' Equity or Stockholders' Equity or Book Value or Total Shareholders' Funds

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Operating Cash Flow
Cash Flow from Operating Activities

Operating Cash Flow: Cash received or expended as a result of the company's internal business activities. It includes cash earnings plus changes to working capital. Over the medium term this must be net positive if the company is to remain solvent.

Cash Flow from Operating Activities include the production, sales and delivery of the company's product as well as collecting payment from its customers. Examples:
(+) Receipts from the sale of goods or services
(-) Payments to suppliers for goods and services
(-) Payments to employees
(-) Interest payments
(-) Income Taxes
Items which are added back to cash flows from operations generally include:
(+) Depreciation (loss of tangible asset value over time)
(+) Deferred tax
(+) Amortization (loss of intangible asset value over time)

Source: C101 lecture notes
 
 
OPG
Operating

Abbreviation for 'operating'

Source: N/A
 
 
Ordinary Shares

Ordinary Shares - equivalent to "Common Stock" in the U.S. - the most common form of share ownership. Ordinary shareholders are part-owners of a company. They have voting rights and are entitled to dividends out of company profits, although preference share-holders are always paid first. Ordinary shareholders also rank behind preference shareholders and secured creditors in claims to a company's remaining capital in the event of liquidation.

See NOSH and Preference Shares

Source: www.premiumdata.net
 
 
P
Private Placement

Raising of capital via private rather than public placement. The result is the sale of securities to a relatively small number of investors. Investors involved in private placements are usually large banks, mutual funds, insurance companies, and pension funds.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
P/BPS
Price / Total Liabilities per share

Latest Closing Price / Total Liabilities per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
P/E
Price-Over-Earnings

Closing Price / Latest Audited Earnings per Share

The purpose of dividing the price with the net earnings is to show if the price is influenced by changes in its net earnings.

The PE ratio generally shows in multiples or number of times the market is willing to pay for a stock. It can also be interpreted as the number of years it takes the company at the current level of profitability to fully earn back the market price being paid. Negative earnings will result in a negative PE, which is not meaningful. Lower PE ratios are preferred to higher numbers within the same comparable industry or sub sector or group of competitors. A PE ratio by itself does not mean much, it has to be compared over a historical time series.

The PE Ratio of stocks have a historical high and low. This is frequently referred to as the PE band. During very buoyant and depressed periods, new highs or new lows may be registered. Other than such extraneous conditions, the PE of a stock tends to trade within a normal high-low range.


Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
P/NTAPS
Price / Net Tangible Asset Per Share

Closing Price / Net Tangible Asset per share
Net Tangible Asset per share = (Total Shareholder's Funds - Intangible Assets - Minority Interest) / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Annual Balance Sheet
 
 
P/NW
Price / Net Worth

Closing Price / Total Shareholders Funds per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
P/OC
Price Multiples of Operating Cash Flow

Closing Price / Operating Cash Flow per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Cash Flow Statement
 
 
P/OCF
Price / Operating Cash Flow

Closing Price / Operating Cash Flow per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Statement of Cash Flows
 
 
P/OCPS
Price/Operating Cash Flow Per Share

Closing Price / Operating Cash Flow per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Cash Flow Statement
 
 
P/REV
Price / Revenue

Closing Price / Revenue per share

Commonly known as Price / Sales

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
P/RPS
Price / Revenue per share

Latest Closing Price / Revenue per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
P/TA
Price / Total Assets

Closing Price / Total Assets per share

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
PAR VALUE
Par Value

A nominal value used solely to determine the nominal value of a share

Note: The new Company Bill 2015 was passed by Parliament on April 28, 2016 where all companies are given 24 months to phase out and abolish the concept of par or nominal value of shares that were applied under the Companies Act 1965.

Equitiestracker.com retains the last reported par value of the company as it serves as a historical reference.

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
PAT
Profit After Tax

Profit after tax is often associated with net profit or net income. In accounting, net profit is equal to the gross profit minus overheads minus interest payable plus/minus one off items for a given time period. PAT can be fully retained by a company to be used in the business. However dividend is paid to the share holders from this residue. Here is how you reach net profit on a P&L (Profit & Loss) Statement:

1.Gross profit = Sales revenue - cost of sales and other direct costs
2.Operating profit (EBIT, earnings before interest and taxes) = Gross profit - overheads and other indirect costs
3.Pretax Profit (EBT, earnings before taxes) = Operating profit - one off items and redundancy payments, staff restructuring - interest payable
4.Net profit (PAT) = Pre-tax profit - tax
5.Retained earnings = Profit after tax (PAT) - Dividends

Source: www.wikipedia.org
 
 
PATMI
Profit After Tax and Minority Interests

Abbreviation for 'Profit After Tax and Minority Interests'

See PAT and MI

Source: N/A
 
 
Payables

See Accounts Payables (AP). Also known as Creditors

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Pref Shrs
Preference Shares

Preference shares are treated in preference to ordinary shareholders in terms of dividend payments. Preference shares allow investors to enjoy the advantages of owning ordinary shares as well as being given fixed income ahead of ordinary shareholders.

Moreover, when a company is liquidated, any funds leftover for shareholders will go towards preference shareholders first before ordinary shareholders.

See Ordinary Shares

Source: Institute of Bankers Malaysia
 
 
Pro P/E
Prospective P/E

Closing Price / Estimated Prospective P/E

Source: Analyst Reports
 
 
PUC
Paid-Up Capital

The total amount of shareholder capital that has been paid in full by shareholders. Paid-up capital is essentially the portion of authorized stock that the company has issued and received payment for.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
QUICK
Quick Ratio

(Current Assets - Stock) / Current Liabilities

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
R-4Q
Rolling 4 Quarter

Represents the cumulative 4 Quarter (Unaudited) or 4 Segment results of a company.

Source: Latest Quarterly Results
 
 
R-4Q P/E or Rolling 4Q P/E
Rolling 4 Quarter P/E

Current Closing Price / Cumulative 4Q or 4Segment Earnings

Source: Latest Quarterly Results
 
 
RCCPS
RCCPS

RCCPS stands for Redeemable Convertible Cumulative Preference Shares (Singapore)

Source: www.acronymfinder.com
 
 
RCULS
Redeemable Convertible Unsecured Loan Stock

A type of security that can be used to purchase underlying common shares. It is similar to a warrant except that it is subject to the conversion ratio. In essence, an RCULS provides the benefits of a bond until it is converted to an equity. If the loan stocks are redeemable, then on maturity the holder can either convert the RCULS into shares or redeem the RCULS from the issuing company at their par value. Upon conversion into shares, the Number of Shares Outstanding (NOSH) is increased.

See CULS and ICULS

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Recv
Receivables

Abbreviation for 'receivables'. Please also refer to Acct Recv or AR for further definitions.

Source: N/A
 
 
Recv Days
Receivable Days

A measure of the average time a company's customers take to pay for purchases, equal to accounts receivable divided by annual sales on credit times 365.

Source: Accounting Ratios & KPIs
 
 
Rev
Revenue

Revenue is also known as Sales or Turnover

Source: N/A
 
 
REV/TA
Revenue / Total Asset

Total Revenue / Total Assets

Revenue is also known as Sales or Turnover

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
Reverse Split
Reverse Stock Split

A reduction in the number of a corporation's shares outstanding that increases the par value of its stock or its earnings per share. The market value of the total number of shares (market capitalization) remains the same.

For example, a 1-for-2 reverse split means you get half as many shares, but at twice the price. It's usually a bad sign if a company is forced to reverse split - firms do it to make their stock look more valuable when, in fact, nothing has changed. A company may also do a reverse split to avoid being delisted.

See Split or Stock Split

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
RIGHTS
Rights Issue

A security giving stockholders entitlement to purchase new shares issued by the corporation at a predetermined price (normally less than the current market price) in proportion to the number of shares already owned. Rights are issued only for a short period of time, after which they expire.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Rights
Rights & Entitlements

Rights & Entitlements - new shares made available to existing shareholders for purchase, the number of shares being in proportion to the current holding. The new shares are often issued at a discount to the current price. A rights issue (renounceable) may be on-sold by an existing holder but an entitlement issue (non-renounceable) must be either taken up or allowed to lapse.

Source: www.premiumdata.net
 
 
ROE%
Return on Equity

Net Profit / Total Shareholders Funds x 100%

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
ROR%
Return on Revenue

Net Profit / Total Revenue x 100%

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
ROTA%
Return on Total Assets

Net Profit / Total Assets x 100%

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
RPS
Revenue per share

Total Revenue(Sales) / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
S(PLIT)
Share Split

Also known as Stock Split

Source: Official Exchange Filings
 
 
Split
Stock Split or Forward Stock Split

A corporate action in which a company's existing shares are divided into multiple shares. Although the number of shares outstanding increases by a specific multiple, the total dollar value of the shares remains the same compared to pre-split amounts, because no real value has been added as a result of the split.

For example, in a 2-for-1 split, each stockholder receives an additional share for each share he or she holds.

One reason as to why stock splits are performed is that a company's share price has grown so high that to many investors, the shares are too expensive to buy in round lots.

For example, if a XYZ Corp.'s shares were worth $1,000 each, investors would need to purchase $100,000 in order to own 100 shares. If each share was worth $10, investors would only need to pay $1,000 to own 100 shares.

Also known as Share Split or Forward Share Split

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
STOCK SALES
Stock / Sales Ratio

Total Stocks / Revenue

Stocks is also known as Inventory

Source: Latest Company Audited Profit & Loss Statement & Balance Sheet
 
 
SWC
Shareholder Wealth Creation

Shareholder Wealth Creation is a direct result of effective management over the long term driving a good business or franchise. This should result in increasing Net Profit or Earnings Yield; an increase in Dividends or Retained Earnings and hence Net Worth; and eventually a Share Price Increase or a significant CAGR over the long run.

Source: Proprietary
 
 
SYAR WTG
Syariah Weightage

(Syariah Stock Price x NOSH) / Total Number of Syariah Shares

Source: N/A
 
 
TA
Total Assets

Total Assets = Current Assets + Long Term Assets

Source: N/A
 
 
Tangible Asset
Tangible Asset

An asset that has a physical form such as machinery, buildings and land. This is the opposite of an intangible asset such as a patent or trademark.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
TAPS
Total Assets per share

Total Assets / NOSH

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
TC
Total Cost

Total Cost = (Revenue - Net Profit/Loss)

Also known as Total Expenses

Source: Audited Profit & Loss Statement
 
 
TL
Total Liabilities

Total Liabilities = Current Liabilities + Long Term Liabilities

Source: N/A
 
 
TRADING LIQUIDITY
Trading Liquidity (Calendar Year)

Total Cumulative Calendar Year Volume / [Year End Number of Shares Outstanding (NOSH)] x 100

Source: Daily Volume
 
 
TSF
Total Shareholders' Funds

Total Shareholders' Funds (TSF) is also known as Net Worth (NW), Owners' Equity (OE), Shareholders' Equity, Stockholders' Equity or Book Value (BV)

Total Assets - Total Liabilities - Minority Interest

Source: Latest Company Audited Balance Sheet
 
 
Turnover

Also known as Sales or Revenue

Source: N/A
 
 
V
Volume

Abbreviation for 'volume'

See Volume (VOL)

Source: N/A
 
 
VOL
Volume

The number of shares or contracts traded in a security or an entire market during a given period of time. It is simply the amount of shares that trade hands from sellers to buyers as a measure of activity. If a buyer of a stock purchases 100 shares from a seller, then the volume for that period increases by 100 shares based on that transaction.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
Warrants

Warrants - Option-like securities that are traded on the equities market. Warrants are issued by approved financial institutions rather than granted by individuals operating through a derivatives exchange mechanism. They may be issued over company shares, indices, currencies or commodities. Generally-speaking, warrants have a much longer life-span than options.

See Company Options

Source: www.premiumdata.net
 
 
Y-O-Y
Year Over Year

A method of evaluating two or more measured events to compare the results at one time period with those from another time period (or series of time periods), on an annualized basis. Year-over-year comparisons are a popular way to evaluate the performance of investments. Any measurable events that recur annually can be compared on a year-over-year basis - from annual performance, to quarterly performance, to daily performance.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 
 
YTD
Year To Date

The period beginning January 1st of the current year up until today's date.

Source: www.investopedia.com
 


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